Different Models of Career Reinvention and Retooling in The Post-Pandemic Era

Lukman Raimi


To contribute to human capital development in readiness for the Post-pandemic era, this paper discusses different models of reinvention/retooling as a resilience strategy in the face of vulnerabilities in the labour market. Using a critical literature review (CLR), this paper discusses different models of career reinvention/retooling, including the imperatives in the Post-pandemic era. At the end of the CLR, three insights emerged. First, the twelve (12) different models of career reinvention/retooling in readiness for the Post-pandemic era are task, position, knowledge, occupation, expertise, technical skills, attitude, brand/value, conceptual skills, competencies, managerial skills and entrepreneurial skills. Second, the different models of career reinvention/retooling are imperative because of environmental factors such as economic recession, pandemic/epidemic organisational downsizing, outsourcing, change management, mergers & acquisitions, the emergence of new technologies, globalisation waves, demographic shifts, climate change, migration, and disruptive business models in the labour market, among others. Third, career reinvention/retooling requires tripartite collaboration from critical stakeholders, particularly governments, employees, and business organisations. The paper concludes with policy, managerial and theoretical implications, and suggestions for future research.


Career reinvention; Retooling; Human capital development; Post-pandemic Era; Models

Full Text:



Agrawal, S., De Smet, A., Lacroix, S., & Reich, A. (2020). To emerge stronger from the COVID-19 crisis, companies should start reskilling their workforces now. McKinsey Insights.

Boese, K.C. (2006) Career development, or, retooling for a relevant future. The Bottom Line, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1108/bl.2006.17019baa.001

Business Wire (2021). J.P. Morgan Invests €4.3 Million in Skills Development for the Young and Long-Term Unemployed in Paris. Retrieved from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210627005052/en/J.P.-Morgan-Invests-%E2%82%AC4.3-Million-in-Skills-Development-for-the-Young-and-Long-Term-Unemployed-in-Paris

Castrillon, C. (2019, November) How To Reinvent Your Career After 40. Forbes.

Carlson, T. (2020, December) Amazon to help 29 million people around the world grow their tech skills with free cloud computing skills training by 2025. Amazon. Retrieved from https://www.aboutamazon.com/news/workplace/amazon-to-help-29-million-people-around-the-world-grow-their-tech-skills-with-free-cloud-computing-skills-training-by-2025

Chopra-McGowan, A. & Reddy, S. B. (2020, July) COVID-19: How can companies offer effective reskilling for employees? Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/07/reskill-covid19-workforce

Claus, L. (2019). HR disruption—Time already to reinvent talent management. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 22(3), 207–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2019.04.002

Croom, S., Romano, P., & Giannakis, M. (2000). Supply chain management: an analytical framework for critical literature review. European journal of purchasing & supply management, 6(1), 67–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-7012(99)00030-1

De Vos, M. (2019). How the future of work can work for the workers. In Law, Labour and the Humanities (pp. 46–61). Routledge.

Duff, J. (2020, March). COVID-19 Proves Workers Are Essential and Capitalists Are A Drain. Retrieved from https://www.hamptonthink.org/read/covid-19-proves-that-workers-are-essential-and-capitalists-are-a-drain

Golden, R. (2020). Why Walmart is cross-training associates during the pandemic. Publication of HRDIVE. Retrieved from https://www.hrdive.com/news/why-walmart-is-cross-training-associates-during-the-pandemic/589201/

Ibarra, H. (2004). Working Identity: Unconventional Strategies for Reinventing Your Career. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Ibarra, H. (2020, April). Reinventing Your Career in the Time of Coronavirus. Harward Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2020/04/reinventing-your-career-in-the-time-of-coronavirus

International Labour Organisation (2021a, January). ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work. 7th edition. Updated estimates and analysis.

International Labour Organisation (2021b). Skilling, upskilling and reskilling of employees, apprentices and interns during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from a global survey of enterprises. International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO.

Jepson, D. (2009). Studying leadership at cross-country level: A critical analysis. Leadership, 5(1), 61-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715008098310

Jesuthasan, R., Malcolm, T. and Cantrell, S. (2020, April). Crisis Management - How the Coronavirus Crisis Is Redefining Jobs. Harvard Business Review.

JPMorgan Chase (2019). JPMorgan Chase Makes $350 Million Global Investment in the Future of Work. https://www.jpmorganchase.com/news-stories/jpmorgan-chase-global-investment-in-the-future-of-work

Katz, P. R., Burton, J. R., Drach, G. W., O'Leary, J. P., Strasser, D. C., Eisner, J. & Lundebjerg, N. E. (2009). The Jahnigen scholars program: a model for faculty career development. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(12), 2324–2327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02551.x

Kilic, K., & Marin, D. (2020). How COVID-19 is transforming the world economy. VoxEU. org, 10. Retrieved from https://voxeu.org/article/how-covid-19-transforming-world-economy

Kreeger, K. Y. (2000). Retooling for bioinformatics. The Scientist, 14(23), 35. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A68644151/AONE?u=anon~afb876b1&sid=googleScholar&xid=0a9cc22f

Mottaeva, A. (2018). Formation of mechanism of programme management for the development of medical organisations. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 170, p. 01053). EDP Sciences.

Nair, S. D. (2014). Tough times never last, but tough people do. Indian Coconut Journal, 57(3), 6-10.

OECD (2021, April). OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19) An assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on job and skills demand using online job vacancy data. Retrieved from https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=1071_1071334-wh692jshet&title=An-assessment-of-the-impact-of-COVID-19-on-job-and-skills-demand-using-online-job-vacancy-data

Omair, K. (2010), Typology of career development for Arab women managers in the United Arab Emirates. Career Development International, 15(2), 121–143. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011040932

Osland, J.S., Mendenhall, M.E., Reiche, B.S., Szkudlarek, B., Bolden, R., Courtice, P., Vaiman, V., Vaiman, M., Lyndgaard, D., Nielsen, K., Terrell, S., Taylor, S., Lee, Y., Stahl, G., Boyacigiller, N., Huesing, T., Miska, C., Zilinskaite, M., Ruiz, L., Shi, H., Bird, A., Soutphommasane, T., Girola, A., Pless, N., Maak, T., Neeley, T., Levy, O., Adler, N. and Maznevski, M. (2020). Perspectives on Global Leadership and the COVID-19 Crisis. Osland, J.S., Szkudlarek, B., Mendenhall, M.E. and Reiche, B.S. (Ed.) Advances in Global Leadership (Advances in Global Leadership, Vol. 13), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 3–56.

Raimi, L. & Manishimwe, T. (2021). Small Business Survival of onslaughts of Boko Haram Insurgency, COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis in Yola, North-East Nigeria: Leveraging Entrepreneurial Marketing. In: Stephens, S. (Ed.). (2022). Cases on Small Business Economics and Development During Economic Crises. IGI Global. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-7657-1 .

Rutgers Continuing Studies (2021). Career Retooling. Retrieved from https://lifelonglearning.rutgers.edu/career-retooling

Saunders, M. N. & Rojon C (2011). On the attributes of a critical literature review. Coaching, 4(2):156–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2011.596485

Soni, G. & Kodali, R. (2012). A critical review of empirical research methodology in supply chain management. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 23(6), 753–779. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410381211253326

Tyko, K. (2021). Walmart raising pay for 425,000 workers starting March 13 after strong holiday sales amid COVID-19. USA Today.

Worthington, J. (2012). Reinventing the workplace. Routledge.

DOI: 10.7250/scee.2021.0008


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Lukman Raimi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.